The process behind the other 8 drawings was pretty similar to the one I just described. It really helped me consulting different publications to cross the result and get an idea of the drawing process.
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And what is its role today? The scottish architect has an unique style. He uses a clean but slightly shaking line . He prefers black and white, especially for the prespectives  where he often uses his graceful and original font . But he also does interiors drawings, really accurate watercolors  that he uses also for the elevations, depending to the project . His way of representing vegetation has made history , it is not a case that he is considered a precursor of Art Nouveau. His stroke, so clean and firm, gives its best in his famous striped skies.
Skies in tension , in contrast with the absence of shadows .
He did used hatched shadows but just in the early drawings. The austrian architect has definitely less fame than he deserves. His light watercolors are unmistakable with their tiny details and its evergreen nature . Depending on the message he wanted to give he chose different styles .
The watercolors have a delicacy given from the pencil strokes, that are not insisted and almost invisible . He uses diluted colors , giving a fairytale atmosphere to the representations, especially with a flat sky and some color stains for an non-intrusive vegetation .
The drawing has been made on a A4 gr. The base was in pencil, deriberately left visible, the colors diluted as much as possible. The english architect is by far my favorite. Unfortunately he is also almost unknown outside britsh borders. He theorized his idea of Townscape through hundreds of incredible drawings.
The shapes are sketched and stylised . They seem simple to replicate, but I challenge even professional drawers to accomplish results similar to his. His drawings hold hided complexities, that only he is able to render in a easy way , using a lot of different techinques  and using the color in the smartest way , keeping the drawing light and focus on what is important to communicate. We can say he has the gift of graphic synthesis .
Gift that he uses to convey concepts creating new ways of architectural storytelling, as his patented sequentiality of images , that illustrate paths and views of the city. His drawings are tiny or huge, always giving the viewer a clear image. They are full of life , how Cullen wanted the city streets to be. I used a charcoal pencil. The italian architect, naturalized brazilian, has had a renovated fame in the late years, but her way of drawing was never pointed out.
Lina used drawing with a great naturalness, without thinking about the implications. She produced fast and imprecise watercolors . Ink or pencil, it made no difference, she had a rapid and carefree stroke , filling the drawing with bright and local colors , never disturbing, just joyful. Her human figures are kind of goofy, stylised and child-like , without mentioning her animals and the thriving vegetation, typical of Brazil .
Next to her childish spirit there was a more precise one, how we can see in the numerous side notes , but especially in her realized projects. She often depicts scenes of sweet daily life, giving almost movement to the drawings . Her most iconic drawings are central prespectives , kind of a naive representation, but perfect for her intents. The drawing has been made on a A3 gr. The china ink was used in the quickest and most natural way on a thin pencil base. The watercolor also was cast in a rapid way. Stirling has definitely set a trend in architectural representation during the 60ss.
His use of axonometric was copied by hundreds of architects. He is often called Isometric Stirling. Axonometry allowed him the best clarity and functionality , typical of his architecture. He often added a sparkle of creativity to the rigorous technical drawings . Thrifty on colors , he used a thin coloured pencil to hatch the different areas, the sky was instead composed of crossed blue lines. His architecture is not the fruit of a sudden inspiration, but it is developed through infinite little study sketches , rarely published.
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But was also really common the total absence of contest  to point out paths or parts of the project. China ink was used for the lines and the filling, light coloured pencil for the background. The architect from Milan was one of the first to give an artistic significance to the architectural representation, but always keeping it strictly related to the project and its whole atmosphere and never end to itself. Rossi had a melancholic and beautiful idea of architecture, and his drawings perfectly reflect it.
The line is not precise, but at the same time it is precise inside the context of the drawing . The stroke is fast, and often reiterated , to delineate shadows and atmospheres that we can easly define metaphisic . Aldo Rossi was an incredible drawer, as we can see in his more precise drawings, but to convey his ideas he often used irrealistic prespectives , or sometimes he introduced classical elements, people and out-of-context objects . A site plan is used to verify that a proposal complies with local development codes, including restrictions on historical sites.
In this context the site plan forms part of a legal agreement, and there may be a requirement for it to be drawn up by a licensed professional: architect, engineer, landscape architect or land surveyor. This is the most common view used to describe the external appearance of a building. Each elevation is labelled in relation to the compass direction it faces, e.
Crafting the Architectural Measured Drawings | The Plan Journal
Geometrically, an elevation is a horizontal orthographic projection a building on to a vertical plane, the vertical plane normally being parallel to one side of the building. A cross section , also simply called a section, represents a vertical plane cut through the object, in the same way as a floor plan is a horizontal section viewed from the top.
In the section view, everything cut by the section plane is shown as a bold line, often with a solid fill to show objects that are cut through, and anything seen beyond generally shown in a thinner line. Sections are used to describe the relationship between different levels of a building. In the Observatorium drawing illustrated here, the section shows the dome which can be seen from the outside, a second dome that can only be seen inside the building, and the way the space between the two accommodates a large astronomical telescope: relationships that would be difficult to understand from plans alone.
A sectional elevation is a combination of a cross section, with elevations of other parts of the building seen beyond the section plane. Geometrically, a cross section is a horizontal orthographic projection of a building on to a vertical plane, with the vertical plane cutting through the building. Isometric and axonometric projections are a simple way of representing a three dimensional object, keeping the elements to scale and showing the relationship between several sides of the same object, so that the complexities of a shape can be clearly understood.
There is some confusion over the distinction between the terms isometric and axonometric. Engineers use the word axonometric as a generic term to include isometric, diametric and trimetric drawings. Despite fairly complex geometrical explanations, for the purposes of practical draughting the difference between isometric and axonometric is simple see diagram above. In both, the plan is drawn on a skewed or rotated grid, and the verticals are projected vertically on the page.
All lines are drawn to scale so that relationships between elements are accurate. In many cases a different scale is required for different axes , and again this can be calculated but in practice was often simply estimated by eye. Traditional draughting techniques used 30—60 and 45 degree set squares , and that determined the angles used in these views. Once the adjustable square became common those limitations were lifted. The axonometric gained in popularity in the twentieth century, not just as a convenient diagram but as a formal presentation technique, adopted in particular by the Modern Movement.
The axonometric view is not readily generated by CAD programmes which create views from a three dimensional model. Consequently, it is now rarely used. Detail drawings show a small part of the construction at a larger scale, to show how the component parts fit together. They are also used to show small surface details, for example decorative elements. Section drawings at large scale are a standard way of showing building construction details, typically showing complex junctions such as floor to wall junction, window openings, eaves and roof apex that cannot be clearly shown on a drawing that includes the full height of the building.
A full set of construction details needs to show plan details as well as vertical section details. One detail is seldom produced in isolation: a set of details shows the information needed to understand the construction in three dimensions. In traditional construction, many details were so fully standardised, that few detail drawings were required to construct a building. For example, the construction of a sash window would be left to the carpenter, who would fully understand what was required, but unique decorative details of the facade would be drawn up in detail.
In contrast, modern buildings need to be fully detailed because of the proliferation of different products, methods and possible solutions. Perspective in drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface of an image as it is perceived by the eye. The key concepts here are:. The normal convention in architectural perspective is to use two-point perspective, with all the verticals drawn as verticals on the page.
Three-point perspective gives a casual, photographic snapshot effect. In professional architectural photography , conversely, a view camera or a perspective control lens is used to eliminate the third vanishing point, so that all the verticals are vertical on the photograph, as with the perspective convention. This can also be done by digital manipulation of a photograph taken with a standard lens.
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Aerial perspective is a technique in painting, for indicating distance by approximating the effect of the atmosphere on distant objects. In daylight, as an ordinary object gets further from the eye, its contrast with the background is reduced, its colour saturation is reduced, and its colour becomes more blue.
Not to be confused with aerial view or bird's eye view, which is the view as seen or imagined from a high vantage point. In J M Gandy's perspective of the Bank of England see illustration at the beginning of this article , Gandy portrayed the building as a picturesque ruin in order to show the internal plan arrangement, a precursor of the cutaway view. A montage image is produced by superimposing a perspective image of a building on to a photographic background. Care is needed to record the position from which the photograph was taken, and to generate the perspective using the same viewpoint.
This technique is popular in computer visualisation, where the building can be photorealistically rendered, and the final image is intended to be almost indistinguishable from a photograph. A sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing, a quick way to record and develop an idea, not intended as a finished work. A diagram could also be drawn freehand but deals with symbols, to develop the logic of a design. Both can be worked up into a more presentable form and used to communicate the principles of a design.
In architecture, the finished work is expensive and time consuming, so it is important to resolve the design as fully as possible before construction work begins. Complex modern buildings involve a large team of different specialist disciplines, and communication at the early design stages is essential to keep the design moving towards a coordinated outcome.
There are two basic elements to a building design, the aesthetic and the practical. The aesthetic element includes the layout and visual appearance, the anticipated feel of the materials, and cultural references that will influence the way people perceive the building. Practical concerns include space allocated for different activities, how people enter and move around the building, daylight and artificial lighting, acoustics, traffic noise, legal matters and building codes, and many other issues.
While both aspects are partly a matter of customary practice, every site is different. Many architects actively seek innovation, thereby increasing the number of problems to be resolved. Choice becomes sharply reduced once the design is committed to a scale drawing, and the sketch stage is almost always essential. Diagrams are mainly used to resolve practical matters.
In the early phases of the design architects use diagrams to develop, explore, and communicate ideas and solutions. They are essential tools for thinking, problem solving, and communication in the design disciplines. Diagrams can be used to resolve spatial relationships, but they can also represent forces and flows, e. An exploded view diagram shows component parts dis-assembled in some way, so that each can be seen on its own. These views are common in technical manuals, but are also used in architecture, either in conceptual diagrams or to illustrate technical details.
In a cutaway view parts of the exterior are omitted to show the interior, or details of internal construction. Architectural drawings are produced for a specific purpose, and can be classified accordingly. Drawings intended to explain a scheme and to promote its merits. I will frequently, but not always, shade in the windows so that I can get a sense of the amount of open space we are creating on building. This is another one of those roof study and massing sketches. While a house with a flat, or ver low slope, roof evokes a much more modern look, you can bring more traditional forms into play with how you detail the edge conditions.
The owner felt that the previous version was a bit too ecclesiastical for his liking so we modified the rooflines to try to find a different sort of balance between owner wishes and the neighborhood design guidelines. The sketch above includes the pencil guidelines that I frequently use to help with proportion and scale. I will admit that it feels really odd to be showing these sorts of sketches at all — their lifespan is usually measured in minutes.
These are quick and highly efficient studies that help me get from point A to point B. Truth be told, most of the times we block out the elevation massing on the computer so that we have a form to sketch on top of — and it is the mixing of these two different platforms and processes where I find the most value. If you are just starting out, please take the time to learn how to sketch well enough to convey your thoughts, I can guarantee that it will fundamentally change how you design for the better.
Therefore, anything you read on this site is not a substitute for actually working with me. Following my casual advice is at your own peril … if you want my undivided attention, I would recommend hiring me. Which meant pulling the trace paper back out.