The intergenerational sexual culture analysis of representatives of different age cohorts Zaitseva, Pichugina A, et al. The analysis of publications shows that despite the significant amount of accumulated theoretical and empirical material, the system sociological studies devoted to the problems of influence of directly different social movements on the Russian youth sexual culture formation and reproduction in the contemporary Russia are presented insufficiently.
The study object is the sexual culture of the Russian youth. The subject is the factors and features of impact of different social movements on the characteristic features and types of youth sexual culture in the contemporary Russia. Against the background of traditionally declared common heterosexual culture of the population, including youth, the main hypothesis of the study is that in the contemporary Russian society the regime of coexistence, confrontation and combination of different types of sexual culture is formed.
The additional hypothesis is that the role of institutionalized sexual practices, education, enlightenment of the population in general, and youth in particular, the impact of social movements remains insignificant, and the key role in the sexual cultures formation of youth groups play the individual life path, personal experience of romantic and erotic mutual relations, interpersonal and family communication, and inclusiveness into the information flows.
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The theoretical and practical significance lies in the development and improvement of youth sexual culture concept in the conditions of sociocultural transformation of the modern Russian society, well as the inconsistency of institutional influence of social movements on the formation and reproduction of its axiological and behavioral elements. Findings of the study may be used to improve the work effectiveness of state authorities, local government bodies, institutions of civil society with different youth groups, and to optimize the regional youth, demographic and gender policies.
The subject of study is characterized by the specificity of factors, methods and the direction of impact of different social movements on the formation of youth sexual culture in the contemporary Russia. As the information sources served: statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service Rosstat for yrs; secondary data analysis of sociological studies, conducted by: the Public Opinion Foundation - "Gay pride parades: prevent or allow?
Temkina, N. Petersburg, the beginning of the XXI century. We interpreted the results obtained during the studies conducted with the direct participation of authors: interviews with domestic and foreign experts engaged in studies of modern youth sexuality Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg State University, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, European University in St. For the all studied youth political organizations the key field of activity is the enlightening, socialized activity among the youth.
The traditional directions of their work are supporting the development of labor, culture and education, patriotism, confessional and ethnic tolerance, etc.
No other specific provisions of the purposes, areas of actions in respect of the formation of sex, gender or sexual culture were declared. This can be explained by a high sensitive of sexual problems for the Russian society, careful and very conservative discourse of regulatory and official documents relating to the sexual culture, rather modest place allocated to various problems of intimacy and eroticism in the agenda of many political actors: state and municipal authorities, parties, and movements. In practice, however, some youth political organizations show their activity aimed at the formation of certain aspects of youth sexual culture.
The declared by them objectives and directions of work, in our opinion, outline the reference points of sexual and gender education, but still are little involved in the discussion and resolution of such problems. The support in the family development and strengthening is spelled as one of the main objectives in almost all program documents, and manifestos discussed by the youth organizations.
Traditionally, the support of family is understood as a kind of material monetary payments, housing, etc. But the modern family and marriage union is, first of all, the human relationships, which are fairly easy contracted and dissolved. The specificity and strength of erotic and emotional ties established between the partners and determined the success and longevity of marriage are out of the question studied by the youth political associations.
Their participation is limited, for example, by carrying out of celebratory city actions in honor of "Day of Family, Love and Loyalty" July 8 , publishing of news about the large families on their Internet resources. That activity is caused by the demographic government policy over the last decade — birth rate stimulation with material means by the Government and giving a special status to large families in the media and political discourse.
Formats and Editions of Gender, generation and identity in contemporary Russia [edoqicyp.tk]
Another promising, but little used direction of activity for the sexual education of youth is the promotion of healthy lifestyles. Physical education and sports activities assume not only the physical development of young people, but also rejection of bad habits by young people tobacco smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages. No systematic outreach activities, sexual health programs are carried out by the youth political organizations alone or in conjunction with other noncommercial organizations specialized on these issues.
Assistance in the protection of rights and freedoms of young citizens, compliance with equality under the RF Constitution is one of the key objectives declared in the program and statutory documents of youth political organizations. According to the liberal doctrine of modern developed countries, the civic consciousness is constructed, including by means of sexual rights and freedoms of their members enshrined in the appropriate legal documents, realized with the support of a number of social institutions.
The scientific revolution, well as the public discourse of many Western countries uses the appropriate term "Sexual Citizenship" [ 33 ]. Its relation to the Gender Citizenship is beyond doubt. However, the Russian citizenship, as noted by researchers, is constructed via the dominant heterosexual discourse.
Introduction: women, literature and gender in contemporary Russia, Central and Eastern Europe
The gender issue, for example, is included in the program documents of only one of the organization under consideration — the youth association "Yabloko". The liberal ideology, in our opinion, has contributed to the nomination of women's issues on the agenda of this organization.
For example, on its website "The discussion on equality of rights and inequality of opportunity" of men and women was posted, a campaign on sending parcels to female prisoners was conducted. There is no information on activities in the given directions on the websites of other studied organizations.
Ensuring of equal rights and freedoms assumes simultaneously the protection of legal and institutionalized rights of all citizens, well as promotion, upholding of interests and needs, practices and values of other social groups including sexual not either visible or previously recognized. The success of liberal initiatives and projects on issues of sex, gender and intimacy largely depends on the dominant ideology in the society and government.
The sharp debates on the issue of tolerance can serve as an example of double standards.
While the fight against any kind of discrimination ethnic, religious, racial, etc. The activists of this youth political association within the project "MediaGvardiya" assist the Prosecutor General's Office in the fight against Internet content of LGBT communities websites closing , especially those ones, which is targeting the minors, due to the adopted in in the RF Federal Law banning the gay propaganda among children.
Despite the liberal ideological precepts of political party leaders supported by the youth movements, in the Russian political environment the conservative views on nonconventional sexual orientation dominate. Thus, in February during the vote on the issue of law banning the gay propaganda in St. Petersburg only 5 members of the "Yabloko" faction made "against", and Grigory Yavlinsky, leader of the faction, abstained, although later he expressed criticism. The law was passed in the third reading with the full support of deputies of "United Russia".
The youth political organizations that support the official line of state authority conduct the offensive ideological work, set themselves the tasks all-round education, development, training of young people, increasing their political and legal culture, "preserving and strengthening the ethic, moral foundations of family and society, maintaining its traditional cultural values" Charter of the All-Russian Youth Public Organization "Justice League", [ 34 ], including in the field of sexuality, erotic and emotional relations.
They demand the approval of official conservative discourse in respect of traditional sexual culture. Unlike them the liberal-oriented organizations adhere to the pluralism principle on issues of sexual culture. The activities of all youth political organizations on the issues of sexual and gender culture, sexuality education is very limited.
The paucity of events and active actions in this field, in our opinion, is due to:. The primary task of the said associations is to promote the supported Parties and their members to the political victories in elections, etc. Websites of a number of organizations, for example, "Justice League" and "NASHI", actively operate only during the election campaign, full of speeches of party leaders "Time of the Young," "Justice League" ;.
Peripherality of sexual issues in the political agenda of the Russian government;. No organization specifically deals with issues of sexuality and sexuality education. The declared in official documents directions of work of youth political organizations actually include the issues of sexual, gender and erotic and emotional relations, which only partially reflect the theme of sexual culture formation. However, the youth political organizations have the required capacity to participate in the implementation of modern sexual politics among the youth.
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This requires a new scientific understanding of sexual culture, which includes a revision of prevailing traditional approaches to the interpretation of sex, gender and sexuality, where to date no clear boundaries between them were not conducted, or their properties were mixed. According to our content analysis the domestic non-political public associations that consolidate different social groups of youth or work towards solving the problems of youth are also trying to take part in the enlightenment of boys and girls.
The range of issues covered, working methods, and organized events are largely determined by the purpose, objectives and field of the organization activities: human rights activities, patriotic and spiritual and religious education, support of youth social and cultural initiatives, development of physical health and sports, etc. However, the issues of gender, sexuality, family and marriage relations, and gender are often directly, purposefully, or indirectly, accidentally, touched during the operation of public associations.
Many organizations, in our opinion, have the resources to participate in one degree or another in the sexual culture formation among children, adolescents, and youth. Nowadays in Russia, in our opinion, the human rights organizations are most active in the issues of sexual culture development of different social groups of youth, focusing on the rights of discriminated groups in the field of sexuality. Lodging and meals will be provided. Upon arrival in the host country, participants attend an informative in-country orientation.
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Politics & Public Diplomacy in Contemporary Russia
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Kisriev, Enver : "Why is there stability in Dagestan but not in Chechnya? Yampolsky, Mikhail : "In the Shadow of Monuments. Notes on Iconoclasm and Time", in Nancy Condee ed. Yurchak, Alexei : "Gagarin and the rave kids: Transforming power, identity, and aesthetics in post-Soviet nightlife," in A. Barker ed. Omel'chenko, Elena : "Young women in provincial gang culture: A case study of Ul'ianovsk", in H.