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The mentor is needed full-time at the beginning of a project and then only a day or two a week towards the end when your development staff become self-sufficient. The trick is to slowly wean yourself off your mentor by having them transfer their skills to your staff. Good mentors make you independent of them, bad mentors do not.

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In addition to providing advanced training courses, you should also consider supporting educational opportunities such as:. In the end, if someone has a diploma or certificate all it really says about them is they put in the time to earn it. I've worked with many people that don't have any sort of certification or post-secondary education and they've been great developers. Similarly I've worked great people that do have these things. Fundamentally a diploma or certificate gets your foot in the door, after that it's up to you. To support the learning experience you can promote:.

Learning teams. Learning teams are small, cross-functional groups of people who are given the task of working together to learn a particular new technology or technique. Learning teams are often asked to produce a small application for the company, perhaps something for the human resources or marketing departments. Members of the learning team will still need initial training and mentoring, otherwise they are likely to flounder.

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Reading groups. A common technique is for a group of people to choose to read a book together and then to get together and discuss it on a regular basis. For example, you might choose the book Agile Database Techniques and then once a week get together to discuss the contents of one of the chapters. This motivates people to not only read the book but to actually focus on and understand the material. Bag-lunch training. These are one-hour mini-lessons held during the daily lunch break.

The sessions are typically given by an expert in the subject, usually but not always one of your mentors, and will cover a wide range topics. One lesson may be about test-driven development TDD and the next about agile requirements management. Successful bag-lunch training programs typically involve 2 or 3 sessions a week with each individual session being given several times so that everyone has an opportunity to attend, minimally you should try to give a session once a week. Bag-lunch sessions are easy to do and really give a boost to the learning process.

Information access. Get people access to the Internet, magazine subscriptions, and books. There is a lot of information out there, much of which is free for the taking.

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See provide mentoring and hands-on experience. Computer-based training CBT. Many organizations provide their employees access to introductory CBT courses before sending them on formal training courses, giving them a head-start on learning. It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Adelsberger , Heimo H.

The handbook's goal is to enable the reader to gain a deep understanding of past, current and future research and applications in the field of educational technology. The reader will gain an in-depth understanding of complex theories, strategies, concepts, and methods relating to the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of educational technologies.

Because it combines both the present experience in the field and the vision of its emerging directions, the handbook will be a comprehensive guide for researchers and practitioners working with educational technologies. All the chapters of the second edition are newly written, the handbook therefore presents the latest developments in the field.

Its more than forty chapters each describe relevant research and practice and close with invaluable reference lists; the book itself has a fairly lengthy and detailed index — also invaluable. Inappropriate selection and wrong usage of teaching materials by educators constitute pedagogic malpractices. Discussion of findings from quantitative study The findings of the quantitative study reveal that pedagogic malpractices are perpetrated by educators in different ways, among which are: the adopted language of instruction, student-educator relationship,.

However, the language of instruction is peculiar to the selected South African university. The finding of the study on the adopted language of instruction constituting pedagogic malpractice concurs with the work of Sawir who states that it is important that the appropriate language of instruction be used when teaching any lesson. The finding from the selected South African university also supports the work of Crystal who holds that the lingua franca of any nation that is the language of business, politics and religion, among others should be upheld as the language of instruction in any institution of learning.

This has hampered the learning process through pedagogy as students find it difficult to comprehend the language used by educators during teaching and learning exercises. Robertson, Line, Jones and Thomas in support of language of instruction hampering the learning process, states that students should be taught in their lingua franca rather than foreign languages that may not help the students. However, where the lingua franca is a foreign language, as is the case in some African countries, policy makers should ensure that there is continuity from school through to higher education in the medium of instruction so that where it is not the mother tongue language of the students, they are not disadvantaged.

The finding of the study suggests that though home languages are considered and treated as official in South Africa, the adoption of the English language constitutes pedagogic malpractice, because it hampers the teaching and learning process. The education policy on language of instruction causes some South African educators to perpetrate pedagogic malpractice.

For instance, all eleven languages in South Africa are considered official and educators sometimes engage their students in the local language for easy and better comprehension. However, such students are assessed and given feedback in the English language. This may pose some forms of confusion for the students and hamper their leaning abilities, thereby constituting pedagogic malpractice.

Findings on student-educator relationships constituting pedagogic malpractice agrees with the work of Baker, Grant and Morlock who aver that the relationship between students and their educators can hamper teaching and learning activities. This suggests that pedagogic malpractice is perpetrated when educators fail in maintaining the right and positive relationship with their students.

The study shows that the adapted teaching approach of educators constitutes pedagogic malpractice, this supports the work of Hutt and Tang who state that educators perpetrate pedagogic malpractice when they adopt teacher-centred teaching strategies in lecturing their students. These hampers teaching and learning activities and subsequently amounts to negligence on the part of the educators. Poor or non-usage of teaching materials during lectures was found which constitute pedagogic malpractices perpetrated by educators in the selected universities.

This corroborates the work of Bower who states that teaching support materials are needed for easy comprehension of lessons taught to students at different levels. This implies that the appropriate use of the right teaching support materials motivates and enhances easy comprehension by students. This finding corroborates the work of Dimkpa who considers it as professional misconduct. He further opines that such acts demotivate students and impedes learning processes.

The type and method of assessment and feedback given to students is revealed as another way by which educators in the selected universities perpetrate pedagogic malpractices. Also, this finding supports the work of Butler, Godbole and Marsh who hold the view that the feedback received by students contributes towards learning processes of students either positively or negatively. Assessment and feedback given to students contribute to learning processes. In other words, the learning abilities of students are enhanced through quality assessment and feedback from lecturers.

Findings from the Qualitative Study The qualitative study was used to answer the second research question. From the interviews conducted with educators, themes were generated and discussed. These themes indicate that pedagogic malpractice lingers due to challenges from the students, educators, leadership of the universities, the government and other stakeholders in the field of education. The findings from the qualitative study reflect the causes and effects of pedagogic malpractices perpetrated by educators. These findings are discussed in different themes below. Suffice to state that while students expect to be taught, some educators end up only giving students assignments.

In addition, the volume of assignments also suggests pedagogic malpractice. For instance, educators sometimes saddle students with group tasks without proper monitoring. This corroborates the finding of the work of Fook and Sidhu who opine that the high volume of assignments can constitute learning challenges for students. Some educators acknowledged assignment-related pedagogic malpractice; however, they blame it on the size of the class.

Of course, that is another form of teaching. This corroborates the finding of Hughes, Cavell and Willson and Serfontein and Waal who aver that educators influence students to acquire knowledge based on the relationship that exists between them. The way we educators relate with them students determines how far they will achieve. Unfortunately, some educators fail to relate well with students because students may take them for a ride.

This finding indicates that educators may avoid having a cordial relationship with their students for fear of being disrespected by the students. However, cordial student-educator relationships promote good interaction and better academic performance of students Lee, However, not all educators speak the home language of the students. While some educators fail in discharging their duties, others discharge their duties haphazardly due to the level of burden saddled on them. This coincides with the work of Daniels and McBride who aver that the tasks saddled on educators should be manageable to enable quality output.

He further opines that educators should be able to supervise the works of their students. However, this may not be possible when the educators are overburdened. For instance, in South African universities, the ratio of educator to student is about , while for Nigerian universities, the ratio is about This affects the output of educators in the discharge of their duties.

This corroborates with the finding of Okebukola and Souriyavongsa, Rany, Abidin and Mei who opine that learning processes are hampered when the population of students is excessive compared to the population of educators and the facilities for teaching and learning activities are not commensurate.

Imagine that I teach over students, what magic can l perform? Yet a lot is expected from me. The relationship that exists between administrative members of staff and educators influences the performance of educators when discharging their duties. This corroborates the finding of Weihrich, Cannice and Koontz and Serfontein and Waal which suggests that educators are motivated or demotivated to work based on the relationship that exists between the educators, their colleagues, administrative staff as well as a conducive working environment.

Lecturers feel unmotivated to work. This experience may be common in situations where materials meant to be provided by non-academics such as secretaries within the department are not promptly provided. Also, in situations where nonacademic staff leave their duties such as registration exercises to educators. Hence, some educators perpetrate pedagogic malpractices due to the poor or non-availability of teaching support materials.

In that case, there will be little or nothing that can be done other than to carry-out our responsibilities the best way we can, without teaching support materials, after all, educators are asked if they have lectured, not if they used teaching support materials. This finding contradicts the view of Bower who avers that educators are expected to improvise and not allow non-availability of instructional materials to affect transfer of knowledge.

For instance, an educator reports that. This finding coincides with the finding of Fook and Sidhu who state that the previous learning experiences of students affect learning processes, consequently the teaching abilities of educators. The results show that pedagogical malpractices are perpetrated in various forms by lecturers in the universities.

From the findings of the study, the effects of pedagogic malpractices are extensive. The finding corroborates the work of Mitra who states that sustainable development may be lacking due to pedagogic malpractice. Pedagogic malpractices have immediate and long-lasting effects. Some of these include: demotivation of students, poor knowledge of students, unemployability of students due to lack of knowledge, skills and competencies, poor ranking and perception of the university among other effects.

Firstly, the language of communication is important; the official language of instruction must be taken into consideration as it is the language in which examinations will be written, aids the understanding of students on what is being taught and develop a number of skills and competencies, such as problem solving, critical thinking, among others. Many of the students consider the use of English language as the language of instruction as part of pedagogic malpractice; they prefer their mother tongue to be used.

However, for the purpose of universality and international standards, many former colonies of Britain have adopted the English language. Nevertheless, this policy has put many students especially non-native speakers of the English language in a disadvantaged position.

Hence, this study recommends that policy makers should reconsider the language of instruction policies in countries with similar situations as this affects the learning abilities of the students as well as poses difficulties to educators. This calls for the need for the adoption of a national language as the medium for teaching and learning activities.

However, the English language can be used as an additional language for global standards and to accommodate foreigners. Moreover, the focus must first be to educate and empower students to be useful within their local environments before considering global standards as is the case with nations like Asia and some Latin American countries.

Secondly, the volume and type of assessments given to students must be considered by lecturers.

Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training

As much as students may be willing to learn through the assessments given by lecturers, the morale to learn may be destroyed if the right assessment strategy is not properly utilised, moreover, the volume must also be checked. For instance, a variety of short assessments can be encouraged, assessment in forms of summary, practical works, as well as assessment in small groups should be encouraged.

This will allow students to become more involved and greater satisfaction will be derived from the experience making learning more pleasurable. Thirdly, lecturers should not be saddled with responsibilities beyond their capabilities. This will enable productivity as they will be able to cope with the workload and stay focused on their teaching assignment.

Where they are to be saddled with extra responsibilities such as administrative duties, provision must be made to accommodate the students to ensure they are not disadvantaged. A finding of the study shows that some university lecturers are overburdened and this hampers successful teaching. However, in the event that such is not made available, the view of Bower , which states that lecturers should improvise where teaching support materials are lagging, is supported by the study.

In other words, lecturers should strive to do and be the best in their various fields whatever the circumstances and raise the best students who will in turn raise others in the future. Ibadan: Adeogun Pub. Avetisyan, M. Safra Working Papers Number 51 doi. Beigi, M. Bower, J. Butler, A. Crystal, D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Daniel, L. Daniels, V. Dimkpa, I. Farquhar, S. New Zealand: Ministry of Education. Fook, C. Grisold, T. Heyneman, S. Hughes, J. Hutt, E. Joye, S. Kayode, F. Killian, S. Evidence Based Teaching. Kumar, R. Lee, J. Mitra, D. Norris, P. Why Electoral Integrity Matters.

New York: Cambridge University Press. Obama, B. Ojerinde, D. Okebukola, P. Abuja, Nigeria: National Universities Commission. Robertson, M. Sawir, E. Serfontein, E. Sium, A. Souriyavongsa, T. Uleanya, C. Weihrich, H. Yocum, W. ABSTRACT Student retention and throughput is a global phenomenon facing higher education that dates back to the s and currently remains a critical concern worldwide. Research literature on student retention and throughput trends at higher education institutions continuously refers to the ways in which the various stakeholders at tertiary institutions take important decisions to ensure a better completion rate throughput among postgraduate students at these institutions.

In promoting further appreciation of throughput among postgraduate students, this paper, based on an empirical study among a number of postgraduate students at the University of Ghana, reviews some trends and possible factors that may play a role in postgraduate student throughput at African universities in general and at this university in particular. The outcomes of this study show that student throughput at this institution has decreased over time due to, inter alia, financial difficulties, personal challenges and fewer opportunities for students to get study leave from employers.

The paper concludes with recommendations to improve student throughput at postgraduate level in Africa such as academic counselling before enrolling for postgraduate studies. From the research literature, it is clear that significant improvements are evident by some higher education institutions in addressing this issue Thomas, However, much more still needs to be understood about this issue in the context of improving institutional effectiveness and achieving national imperatives and goals.

As an institutional researcher, the author is concerned with the standards in higher education and, more specifically, with the retention or high dropout rates of students at tertiary level, specifically in African and other Third-World countries. This trend, however, is not limited to tertiary institutions among Third-World 1 Date of submission 15 August Date of review outcome 27 March Date of acceptance 22 July Tertiary institutions throughout the world are currently facing challenges and issues such as the quality of postgraduate training, the length of time it takes for postgraduate students to complete their studies, the success rate of postgraduate students, and the high percentage of postgraduate students who terminate their studies and drop out of the system before graduation Reason, ; Sondlo, Thomas conceptualises student retention and throughput on an international level, and confirms the critical challenge of this issue on a global scale and the measures placed on higher education institutions worldwide for accountability and responsiveness.

Of particular importance to African universities, is the finding from Tinto that the problem of student retention as manifested in the US affects a particular sector of the population, mainly African-American students with a low socio-economic background. Thomas notes that over the years, the success rates of these students have dropped even further. The current situation in Africa is, according to Sondlo , even worse than in other countries of the world. In the African context, these challenges manifest themselves differently from the developed world.

Broad socio-economic and political issues have had a negative impact on the African higher education system. With most of Africa lagging behind in terms of development, African higher education institutions cannot keep pace with their counterparts in developed countries in relation to competition and internationalisation of higher education. Poor preparation for higher education, lack of commitment among students, unsatisfactory academic experience, ineffective matching between students and courses by institutions, lack of social integration, financial issues and personal circumstances are some of the factors that contribute to this dilemma.

In view of these trends in Africa and other countries worldwide, studies on the duration of postgraduate studies and concerns about shortening the time students take to complete their postgraduate studies have become matters of the utmost importance, not only to students and managers of higher education but also to governments, funders of postgraduate studies and other stakeholders in higher education.

In addition, the Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa HERANA , an organisation on higher education and development established by CHET, has been involved in research on the status of postgraduate enrolment and throughput at higher education institutions and the impact it has on world economies Luescher-Mamashela, These studies confirm that both student-related factors and institutional factors have an impact on low student throughput and students who take long to complete their postgraduate studies or do not complete their studies at all.

As a result of these and other studies, many countries have set priorities for institutions of higher learning to improve the efficiency of graduate outputs based on specific benchmarks.

Governments globally have always embraced investment in higher education because they recognise that there is a close link between research and economic development and they are therefore interested in funding postgraduate programmes, especially doctoral programmes. Such funding takes the form of grants allocated either to institutions or directly to students, and such grants are catered for in national annual budgets. In some First-World countries such as Australia and the Nordic states, doctoral education is free; the fees are sponsored by a number of stakeholders.

In other countries, such as Thailand and Japan, loans are available to students on postgraduate level. In an African country such as Ghana, postgraduate studies are not free and students are dependent on loans and in some cases bursaries to enrol in their studies. As a result, stakeholders are concerned about throughput and attrition trends.

This is similar to the conveyer belt syndrome of a factory, the success rate, determined by the quantum of output released through a revolving door Clifford, With this. Some other definitions of throughput go beyond the input and output production concept of an industry that appears to be limited to goods or products and consequently involves the number of people a system deals with in a particular period of time.

Authors such as Craincross , Latief and Blignaut , Hauser and Koenig and Amehoe conclude that the simplest description of student throughput is the number of years a student takes to complete the prescribed examinations. This model theorises that students who socially integrate into the campus community increase their commitment to the institution and are more likely to graduate Tinto, According to Tinto, the challenges are not access to higher education, but rather enhancing student success and improving graduation rates. This situation mirrors the challenges facing African higher education in terms of student retention and throughput to ensure that students are retained and student success rates are improved Tinto, Tinto's model was followed in by a second model, this time on student departure Tinto, Most notably, its more recent versions have addressed motivational variables, including goal commitment.

Over the last decade, motivational theories from multiple fields of study, including educational psychology and social psychology, have been applied to practice, theoretical developments and the study of postgraduate retention. The attribution theory of motivation, in particular, has been notable in practice and in the retention literature. The model in Figure 1 explains the reasons behind student retention and student departures in tertiary education.

Adapted from Tinto, 90 Holistic approaches to student retention that include all stakeholders were carried over from the late s to the early s. Retention literature from this time stresses cross-departmental institutional responsibility for retention via wide-range programming Kadar, ; Lehr, ; Salinitri, ; Walters, ; White, These studies emphasise that all programmes and initiatives designed to support postgraduate retention should deal with formal and informal student experiences inside and outside the classroom. Habley and McClanahan reiterate that the interactions students have with concerned individuals on campus faculty, staff, advisors, peers, administrators have a direct impact on postgraduate retention.

Literacy studies by Brian Street, for example, have made large contributions in this field, particularly with regard to postgraduate writing and the link with postgraduate throughput. Street worked constantly to establish connections, between theory and practice, across different cultural contexts and across disciplines. The interactions students have on campus with individuals at academic, personal and support service centres can influence their sense of connection to the institution and their ability to navigate the campus culture, meet expectations and finally graduate.

In conclusion, throughput is all about making adequate provision in the academic environment to help students complete their studies on schedule, to improve their success rates in the various programmes and prevent them from dropping out of the system. This involves certain strategies geared towards retaining students and making their experience fulfilling on a sustainable basis.

Factors related to postgraduate student throughput The conceptualisation above on student throughput and retention reveals the significance of throughput studies in higher education. Studies by Bischoff , Visser and Hansio , Reason , Thomas and Maybin , suggest many factors and consequences of low postgraduate throughput rates for education institutions of higher learning.

Among these are numerous institutional strategies that can correct negative consequences associated with low throughput rates at an institution to increase success rates and reduce dropout rates. A low throughput rate results in time spent by lecturers engaging with students who do not complete their courses in time, negative perceptions of the image of the institution, a loss of money and time, and lower self-esteem on the part of the student. Other variables often cited in student throughput include academic and social integration and engagement, financial independency and demographic factors.

Boughey , in turn, cites institutional reasons such as setting standards too high, an unapproachable culture that is foreign to students and ineffective student support structures as institutional factors that contribute to the current dilemma. But what is the situation in an African country such as Ghana regarding student throughput and the reasons or factors behind it? Studies on throughput therefore seek to identify and understand the reasons why students take long to complete their studies or fail to complete their studies student dropout situations.

Apart from identifying and understanding the reasons, throughput studies also seek to recommend solutions to ensure improved completion rates and to keep dropout rates very low, while at the same time maintaining or increasing the success rate. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the possible causes of delayed completion and non-completion among research postgraduate students at the University of Ghana and to recommend ways in which these situations can be improved in other African countries.

The research question for this study can be phrased as follows: Which specific factors influence throughput rates at the University of Ghana? The former postgraduate students were purposefully selected from the graduation classes of this period. Purposive sampling was appropriate for this study because the study sought to investigate a phenomenon within a specific timeframe Twumasi, Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the participants.

The interviews were recorded verbatim and the researcher took notes during the process. Issues related to confidentiality and accuracy of notetaking were taken seriously during the research. Structured interview schedules were used with adequate space provided after each open-ended item to facilitate responses. Thereafter, follow-up interviews were conducted to obtain further clarification on some responses. The respondents were reminded on a weekly basis to complete interview schedules by means of electronic mail, telephone calls and personal visits by research assistants.

The services of record officers were sought to retrieve the files of the students selected for review from the archives of the School of Graduate Studies at the university. Each file was thoroughly read from the first to the last document. In this process relevant data, such as date of first registration, appointment of supervisors and thesis topics, were recorded.

The structured interview schedules for both students and supervisors were pre-coded. By coding the items, it was possible to count frequency of responses in terms of ideas, themes and words. It also made it possible to categorise items; identify patterns and variables; and synthesise various accounts into coherent evidence from the responses. Written responses to some of the interview questions and responses to open-ended questions in the questionnaire were analysed qualitatively by keeping track of the responses given and teasing out the meaning of ideas expressed by the respondents into coherent themes.

It was possible for the researcher to distinguish between dominant views and minority views and themes that emerged from the responses, since the structured interviews and open-ended interviews were coded. Some responses to the structured interviews were reproduced verbatim in order to support specific characteristics that emerged from the accounts. Through document analysis, very useful data were obtained from the selected case files.

These records provided documentary evidence of the experiences of student respondents and a clearer understanding of. Themes were derived from the summarised data on each of the case files for analysis and discussion. Interviews allowed the researcher to follow up on misunderstood items and inadequate responses, which generally promotes validity.

In light of the above information, all the interview schedules were self-administered, which offered the opportunity to pose follow-up questions to the respondents personally. Another way of ensuring instrument reliability and validity was to construct interview schedules carefully to ensure that each question was related to the research topic; and to cover adequately all aspects of the research topic in the research questions. The use of interviews and document analysis for data collection ensured triangulation, which further underscores the reliability of the research.

Patton proposed a simplified model of seeking the consent of respondents and interviewees in qualitative surveys, suggesting that opening statements should be designed in a manner that would provide answers to questions such as: What is the purpose of collecting the information? How will it be used? What questions will be asked in the interview? The consent of all potential respondents was sought beforehand by emailing consent letters to them. To disabuse the respondents of any doubts concerning the research, the purpose of the research was indicated in the prior consent notices and on the questionnaire.

Tape recorders were used to record responses and the interviews were held without the presence of other people. The prior consent of all interviewees was sought in writing; therefore, establishing a good rapport before, during and after the interviews. Confidentiality was also ensured by reassuring the respondents at the beginning of the interview that their responses are strictly confidential and would only be used for the purpose of the research.

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Finally, the respondents were also given the opportunity to ask questions to clarify any doubts they had about the study. Most postgraduate students who combined studying with work were not able to devote adequate time to their studies.

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The qualitatively analysed data and student case files of extended completion students clearly indicated that the students had full-time jobs at the time they enrolled for their studies. The challenge of managing time for work and study rested with the students.

My problem was time, if I had enough time I would have completed in the prescribed period. Evidence in two student case files DS4 and MS2 showed that the students did not complete their studies on time due to time constraints. They had to juggle their studies and work and could therefore not make progress.

Others simply lacked focus or didn't set the right priorities. It is evident from the personal confessions of students and their supervisors that this obstacle resulted in a challenge for them and therefore prevented them from completing their research work and submitting their theses on time, with the consequence of delayed or extended completion. In addition to time constraints, personal circumstances were cited as another obstacle to successful completion of studies.

Evidence in three student case files DS10, DS5 and MS2 indicated unexplained circumstances and inability on the part of students to communicate their challenges, which resulted in lapsed candidature or non-completion of their studies. The inability of some students to communicate the difficulties they encountered during their studies also contributed to non-completion or dropping out of the system.

Besides personal challenges such as family demands especially from students who were married and health issues, qualitative data from student responses also revealed other issues such as the lack of access to libraries and internet services due to the distance between their residences and institution of study as reasons for slow throughput.

Most postgraduate students were unable to get financial support for their studies due to inadequate sponsorship opportunities or sources of funding to meet the high costs of research, especially in the sciences. Another issue cited by respondents was the high fees charged for postgraduate studies at universities.

Government should force our public universities to charge realistic fees. In this regard it is worth noting that some private tertiary institutions in Ghana are already making great strides in this direction. The challenge is how they should handle these issues so that they do not escalate into more serious problems with adverse consequences like their inability to complete their studies on time. Earlier studies cited above show that this had been a long-standing challenge suggesting difficulties in resolving these issues.

The holistic strategies implemented by the University of Ghana are in line with international best practice models evident in the existing literature. To this end, much more research exists on why students fail to persist as opposed to why they succeed. By focusing on what students are doing right instead of what they are doing wrong, new aspects of successful student experiences may be illuminated, which can be applied to support all students.

A historical look at postgraduate retention reveals that empirical study of this phenomenon has grown considerably over the last 50 years.


Researchers are concerned about the variables related to student persistence on postgraduate level and identifying best practices to encourage degree attainment. Specifically, practitioners such as academic advisors have been interested in attribution theory. In conclusion to this study, the following recommendations can be made to deal with each of the reasons that the respondents cited that resulted in the current situation of student throughput and retention at the University of Ghana.

It is recommended that an effective student retention programme be introduced at the university that, inter alia, focuses on the following:. In other words, institutional goals should always have a direct or indirect relationship to student success and achievement.

This also means that the expectations of achievement and behaviour should be the same for all students. The university should consider establishing a postgraduate research endowment fund PREF to support research at postgraduate level. This initiative was very effective in countries such as Australia Sondlo, As the name indicates, such an endowment fund should be established solely for promoting postgraduate research, especially at doctoral level.

The private sector and industry should be obvious targets for resourcing this fund. The number of recipients could be expanded to cover more beneficiaries. In addition, students can enquire about the costs involved in studying their programmes of choice, research and other necessities involved in the entire programme to enable them make an informed decision. According to Boughey , counselling has been an effective way of addressing the problem of student throughput in the US. Additionally, recent retention research has used theories of expectancy, goal setting, self-efficacy, academic self-concept, motivational orientations and optimism Thomas, ; Sondlo, Research on optimism and individual strengths and focus on the positive psychology movement, have all been notable additions to the study of student success in postgraduate studies.

These applications may hold great promise for the future of retention research. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Berger, J. Seidman Ed. Bisschoff, C. Boughey, C. Johannesburg: Development Bank of SA. Bovee, C. Boston: Prentice Hall Publishers. Carey, K. Clifford, H. Craincross, A. Demetroiu, C. Draper, S. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, UK. Eggins, H. Habley, W. All survey colleges. Boston, MA. Hauser, R.

National Research Council Report. Horne T. Jiranek, V. Kadar R. Latief, A. Latona, K. Lehr, C. Increasing school completion: Learning from research-based practices that work. National Center on Secondary Education and Transition.