Eynard and N. Invariants of algebraic curves and topological expansion, Commun. Number Theory Phys. Algebraic Combin. Alessandra Frabetti, Simplicial properties of the set of planar binary trees 13 , no.

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## Toby Wiseman: pplications of geometry to quantum field theory using the AdS-CFT correspondence

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When will my order be ready to collect? Following the initial email, you will be contacted by the shop to confirm that your item is available for collection. Call us on or send us an email at. The connection between Higgs physics and BSM physics remains an active area of research. Precision calculations are crucial for studying the detailed characteristics of the Higgs boson, and Iain Stewart has applied effective field theory methods to calculate key Higgs cross sections and thus reduce theory uncertainties in Higgs measurements.

Jets are collimated sprays of particles that arise when quarks and gluons are produced at the LHC, and copious jet production is a potential smoking gun for supersymmetric theories.

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Jesse Thaler has been at the forefront of the emerging field of jet substructure, developing new jet analysis techniques to capitalize on the exceptional ability of the LHC experiments to resolve jet constituents. Stewart and Thaler have also developed new techniques to perform precision jet calculations, capitalizing on recent development on applying resummation techniques to hadronic collisions.

The gravitational evidence for dark matter is overwhelming, but the nature and origin of dark matter is still unknown. The two leading paradigms for dark matter are axions and stable relics possibly of supersymmetric origin , but given the lack of any conclusive dark matter signals to date, CTP researchers are taking imaginative approaches to dark matter and its potential signatures.

Particle theory also connects to more formal developments in QFT as well as string theory. Almost all collider studies involve the calculation of scattering amplitudes, but independent of collider applications, Freedman has shown that scattering amplitudes themselves have a rich mathematical structure with hidden symmetries. Inspired by potential LHC signatures of supersymmetry, Thaler has shown that the dynamics of supersymmetry breaking can be richer than previously thought, leading to new results in formal supergravity.

Strong dynamics is a feature of many extensions of the standard model, and one can gain some analytic handles on these scenarios by treating them as if they were conformal field theories i.

## Toby Wiseman: pplications of geometry to quantum field theory using the AdS-CFT correspondence

Conformal field theories may also be relevant for understanding jet physics, since the interactions of quarks and gluons can sometimes be approximated as having a scaling symmetry. More generally, techniques developed in particle theory have the potential to offer new insights in other fields, especially condensed matter physics. The challenge of understanding strong interactions is a unifying theme that cuts across many areas of CTP research and also plays a central role in aspects of the physics of condensed matter and ultracold atoms.

The interactions among quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics QCD , are particularly important because they exhibit many characteristic and challenging features of a strongly coupled theory while at the same time they are described at short length scales by a well- understood and well-tested theory, QCD, which is a central part of the Standard Model. Understanding strong QCD interactions is crucial to interpreting collider searches for new short distance physics, within and beyond the Standard Model, as well as to understanding the properties of the hot matter that filled the microseconds old universe and the dense matter in the centers of neutron stars.

They are also the key to understanding how quarks and gluons form protons, neutrons, and other hadrons — which were the earliest complex structures formed in the universe — and subsequently nuclei. QCD provides a defining example of a theory in which the entities and phases that it describes do not resemble the elementary constituents of which they are made.

This feature is characteristic of strongly interacting systems in many areas of physics and makes them both interesting and challenging. Effective field theory provides a crucial tool both for probing the fundamental description of nature embodied by the electroweak part of the Standard Model, and for understanding QCD.

In recent years the number of physical phenomena successfully described by effective field theory methods has been rapidly expanding, and MIT faculty have made crucial contributions to these developments. This formalism has enabled improvements in precision by a factor of ten for cross section calculations, and has made a broader range of sophisticated reactions theoretically tractable.

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Other examples include probing fundamental symmetries like the Standard Model description of CP violation and weak decays, and precisely determining essential parameters like the strong coupling constant. The physics of hadrons and nuclei arises from the same Standard Model that is probed at colliders, but it requires different theoretical methods. By employing innovative analytic and computational methods, they are able to make fundamental progress in solving complex problems in QCD that are not amenable to other techniques.

Detmold's research centers on obtaining quantitative understanding of how the complexity of nuclei emerges from their underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom, and of the dynamics of the rearrangement of the light quarks and gluons that occurs when a heavy quark decays, for example at particle colliders such as the LHC where LNS colleague Mike Williams measures these decays using the LHCb experiment. Detmold's advances in the QCD study of nuclei have the potential for transforming nuclear physics as they provide a path towards ab initio calculations of nuclear processes with fully quantifiable uncertainties.

Negele's research focuses on understanding the underlying structure of the proton. His calculations are now elucidating the contributions of quarks and gluons to the spatial, momentum, and spin structure of protons and neutrons.

Both Detmold and Negele also perform carefully quantified calculations of unmeasured properties of nucleons and nuclei that are needed in experimental searches for dark matter and other new physics. Detmold and Negele are key members of a national initiative exploiting the country's most powerful computers for lattice QCD and also use large-scale resources at MIT. Understanding these liquids requires linking particle and nuclear physics, cosmology, astrophysics and condensed matter physics. Understanding the properties of this new phase of matter and how it emerges from QCD is a central challenge for the coming decade.

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For example, he has shown how a high energy quark plowing through this liquid can lose substantial energy and yet emerge looking similar a jet in vacuum, with small modifications as seen in the data.